Subacromial Impingement Syndrome
SAIS is the inflammation and irritation of your rotator cuff tendons. This occurs when the tendons rub against the outer end of the shoulder blade (the acromion) while passing through the subacromial space during shoulder movement. The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that come together as tendons to form a "cuff".
Rotator Cuff Tear
Pain in the shoulder may suggest an injury, which is more common in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms. In addition to pain, shoulder injuries also cause stiffness, restricted movements, difficulty in performing routine activities and popping sensation.
Anterior Shoulder Instability
Anterior shoulder instability, also known as anterior glenohumeral instability, is a condition in which damage to the soft tissues or bone causes the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to dislocate or sublux from the glenoid fossa, compromising the function of the shoulder.
The shoulder is a highly mobile ball and socket joint. The ball of the upper arm bone (humerus) is held in place at the socket (glenoid) of the shoulder blade (scapula) by a group of ligaments. A partial dislocation of the shoulder joint is termed as a subluxation.
Posterior Shoulder Instability
Posterior shoulder instability, also known as posterior glenohumeral instability, is a condition in which the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) dislocates or subluxes posteriorly from the glenoid (socket portion of the shoulder) as a result of significant trauma. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.
Shoulder impingement is the inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint. It is one of the most common causes of pain in the shoulder. Shoulder impingement is also called swimmer’s shoulder, tennis shoulder or rotator cuff tendinitis. Impingement results in the young and middle-aged who engage in physical activities that require repeated overhead arm movements.
The term SLAP (superior –labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder. The most common causes include falling on an outstretched arm, repetitive overhead actions such as throwing and lifting a heavy object. Overhead and contact sports may put you at a greater risk of developing SLAP tears.
Arthritis of the Shoulder
The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis. Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury. The warning signs that inflammation presents are redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
Post-traumatic Stiffness of the Shoulder
Post-traumatic stiffness of the shoulder is the inability of the shoulder joint to move freely due to the damage sustained to the normal gliding surfaces of the shoulder as a result of trauma (injury) or surgery. The trauma affects the muscles and capsule surrounding the shoulder joint resulting in reduced or loss of motion and functional impairment.
Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocation of the shoulder joint. A dislocation occurs when the end of the humerus (ball portion) partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid (socket portion) of the shoulder. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.
Shoulder Labral Tear
Traumatic injury to the shoulder or overuse of the shoulder (throwing, weightlifting) may cause the labrum to tear. In addition, aging may weaken the labrum leading to injury. Your doctor may initially suggest conservative approaches such as prescribing anti-inflammatory medications and advise rest to relieve symptoms until diagnostic scans are performed.
Sports that involve overhead movements and repeated use of the shoulder at your workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone from the glenoid. The dislocation might be a partial dislocation (subluxation) or a complete dislocation causing pain and shoulder joint instability.
Shoulder Ligament Injuries
Shoulder ligament injuries are injuries to the tough elastic tissues present around the shoulder that connect bones to each other and stabilize the joint. The ligaments present in the shoulder are connected to the ends of the scapula, humerus, and clavicle bones which form the shoulder complex.
Bicep Tendon Rupture at Shoulder
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture. The clavicle and end of the humerus closest to the shoulder are the bones that usually get fractured. The scapula, on the other hand, is not easily fractured because of its protective cover by the surrounding muscles and chest tissue.
Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, is a condition in which you experience pain and stiffness in your shoulder. The symptoms appear slowly, worsen gradually and usually take one to three years to resolve on their own. The shoulder joint is comprised of bones, tendons, and ligaments that are encased in a capsule of connective tissue.
Rotator Cuff Arthropathy
The rotator cuff consists of 4 muscles that stabilize the ball and socket joint of the shoulder during movement. Large tears in the rotator cuff can lead to joint instability and slipping of the ball (end of the upper arm bone or humerus) out of the socket (the glenoid fossa of the shoulder).
Fracture of the Shoulder Blade (Scapula)
Shoulder injuries most commonly occur in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms. Shoulder injuries cause pain, stiffness, restricted movements, difficulty in performing routine activities and a popping sensation.
The break or fracture of the clavicle (collarbone) is a common sports injury associated with contact sports such as football and martial arts, as well as impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break.
Fractures of the glenoid are rare but can occur due to major trauma or during high-energy sports activities. The symptoms of a glenoid fracture may include shoulder pain, swelling, a deformity at the site of the fracture and inability to move the arm. Your doctor will perform a thorough physical examination and order X-rays or a CT scan to determine the extent of the fracture and displacement of the joint.
Proximal Humerus Fractures
The humerus is the bone that forms the upper arm. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint and with the lower arm bones – the ulna and radius – to form the elbow joint. The proximal humerus is the upper end of the arm bone that forms the shoulder joint.
Shoulder synovitis is an inflammatory condition of the synovium or synovial membrane, the inner layer of the capsule in the shoulder joint. The joint capsule is located in the upper & lower limb joints providing lubrication in order to avoid friction during movements.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. AC joint osteoarthritis affects the tissue covering the ends of bones (cartilage) in the AC joint of the shoulder. The cartilage becomes damaged and worn out causing pain, swelling, stiffness and restricted movement in the AC joint.
Shoulder bursitis, also known as subacromial bursitis, is a condition characterized by pain and inflammation in the bursa of the shoulder. The bursa is a fluid-filled sac present between the bone and soft tissue that acts as a cushion and helps to reduce friction during movement.
AC Joint Separation
AC joint separation, also known as shoulder separation, is a condition characterized by damage to the ligaments that connect the acromion to the collar bone. As a result, the bones do not line up properly, causing joint pain and instability. Diagnosis can be made based on discussion of your symptoms and a physical examination of the shoulder.
Shoulder tendonitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons which connect the muscles to the shoulder bones. Tendonitis of the rotator cuff tendons is known as rotator cuff tendonitis. If the biceps tendon is affected, the condition is known as bicipital tendonitis.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Arthritis
The acromioclavicular joint is part of the shoulder joint. It is formed by the union of the acromion, a bony process of the shoulder blade, and the outer end of the collar bone or clavicle. The joint is lined by cartilage that gradually wears with age as well as with repeated overhead or shoulder level activities such as basketball.
Rotator Cuff Calcification
Rotator cuff calcification is the abnormal accumulation of calcium deposits in rotator cuff muscles and tendons. The rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles and tendons in the shoulder joint that join the head of the humerus to the shoulder. It forms a sleeve around the humeral head and glenoid cavity, providing additional stability to the shoulder joint while enabling a wide range of mobility.
The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body that enables a wide range of movements. Aging, trauma or sports activities can cause injuries and disorders that can range from minor sprains or strains to severe shoulder trauma. The shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint made up of three bones, namely the humerus, scapula, and clavicle.
Partial Rotator Cuff Tear
A partial rotator cuff tear is an incomplete tear that involves damage to a part of the tendon. The tear can be at the top, bottom or inner side of the tendon and does not go all the way through the tendon completely. A rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles in the shoulder joint that include the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis.
Biceps Tendon Rupture
The biceps muscle is located in the front side of your upper arm and functions to help you bend and rotate your arm. The biceps tendon is a tough band of connective fibrous tissue that attaches your biceps muscle to the bones in your shoulder on one side and the elbow on the other side. Overuse and injury can cause fraying of the biceps tendon and eventual rupture.
Proximal Biceps Tendon Rupture
The biceps muscle is the muscle of the upper arm which is necessary for the movement of the shoulder and elbow. It is made of a ‘short head’ and a ‘long head’ which function together. These are connected to the shoulder joint by two tendons called the proximal biceps tendons and to the elbow joint by a single distal biceps tendon.
Rotator Cuff Bursitis
The rotator cuff is a set of muscles and tendons which hold the various bones of the shoulder joint together, providing strength and support. Inflammation of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac between the rotator cuff tendons and a bony process at the top of the shoulder called the acromion, is known as shoulder bursitis or rotator cuff bursitis.
Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation (Shoulder Separation)
A dislocation occurs when the ends of your bones are partially or completely moved out of their normal position in a joint. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation, whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation. AC joint dislocation is the separation of the collar bone or clavicle from the acromion (the top portion of the shoulder blade or scapula at the outer edge of the shoulder) due to severe trauma or injury.
Rotator Cuff Pain
The rotator cuff consists of a group of tendons and muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. These tendons allow a wide range of movement of the shoulder joint across multiple planes. Irritation or injury to these tendons can result in rotator cuff pain.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Injuries
The acromioclavicular (AC) joint in the shoulder is very important for shoulder strength, motion, and maintaining shoulder position. The joint is stabilized by various ligaments and a capsule, which can cause pain and affect normal joint function if damaged.